LOS ANGELES (AP) — Doris Day, the sunny blond actress and singer whose frothy comedic roles opposite the likes of Rock Hudson made her one of Hollywood's biggest stars in the 1950s and '60s and a symbol of wholesome American womanhood, died Monday. She was 97.
In recent years, Day had been an animal rights advocate and her Doris Day Animal Foundation confirmed her death at her Carmel Valley, California, home. The foundation said she was surrounded by close friends.
"Day had been in excellent physical health for her age, until recently contracting a serious case of pneumonia, resulting in her death," the foundation said in a statement. It said she requested "no funeral or memorial service and no grave marker."
With her lilting contralto, wholesome beauty and glowing smile, Day was a top box-office draw and recording artist known for comedies such as "Pillow Talk" and "That Touch of Mink," as well as songs like "Whatever Will Be, Will Be (Que Sera, Sera)" from the Alfred Hitchcock film "The Man Who Knew Too Much."
Over time, she became more than a name above the title: Right down to her cheerful, alliterative stage name, she stood for a time of innocence and G-rated love, a parallel world to her contemporary Marilyn Monroe. The running joke, attributed to both Groucho Marx and actor-composer Oscar Levant, was that they had known Day "before she was a virgin."
Day herself was no Doris Day, by choice and by hard luck.
In her Oscar-nominated role in 1959's "Pillow Talk," the first of three films with Hudson, she proudly caught up with what she called "the contemporary in me." Her 1976 tell-all book, "Doris Day: Her Own Story," chronicled her money troubles and three failed marriages.
"I have the unfortunate reputation of being Miss Goody Two-Shoes, America's Virgin, and all that, so I'm afraid it's going to shock some people for me to say this, but I staunchly believe no two people should get married until they have lived together," she wrote.
Day was given a Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2004, as George W. Bush declared it "a good day for America when Doris Marianne von Kappelhoff of Evanston, Ohio decided to become an entertainer."
Although mostly retired from show business since the 1980s, she still had enough of a following that a 2011 collection of previously unreleased songs, "My Heart," hit the top 10 in the United Kingdom. The same year, she received a lifetime achievement honor from the Los Angeles Film Critics Association.
Designer Stella McCartney, an animal rights advocate, responded to Day's death Monday by tweeting: "The one, the only, the woman who inspired so much of what I do... Doris Day I love you, my calamity Jane. An iconic woman who I was hugely honoured to meet and share precious moments with. Rest in peace."
Playwright Paul Rudnick tweeted in part, "Doris Day was kind and decent, onscreen and off; she maintained her friendship with Rock Hudson after his AIDS diagnosis, in a climate of fear and abandonment — one of his last appearances was on a TV show with her."
Born to a music teacher and a housewife in Cincinnati, Day dreamed of a dance career but at age 12 broke her leg badly when a car in which she was traveling was hit by a train. Listening to the radio while recuperating, she began singing along with Ella Fitzgerald, "trying to catch the subtle ways she shaded her voice, the casual yet clean way she sang the words."
Day began singing at a Cincinnati radio station, then a nightclub, then in New York. A bandleader changed her name to Day after the song "Day after Day" to fit it on a marquee.
A marriage at 17 to trombonist Al Jorden ended when, she said, he beat her when she was eight months pregnant. She gave birth to her son, Terry, in early 1942. Her second marriage also was short-lived. She returned to Les Brown's band after the first marriage broke up.
Her Hollywood career began after she sang at a Hollywood party in 1947. After early stardom as a band singer and a stint at Warner Bros., Day won the best notices of her career with 1955's "Love Me or Leave Me," the story of songstress Ruth Etting and her gangster husband-manager. She followed with Hitchcock's "The Man Who Knew Too Much," starring with James Stewart as an innocent couple ensnared in an international assassination plot. She sang "Que Sera, Sera" just as the story reached its climax. The 1958 comedy "Teacher's Pet" paired her with an aging Clark Gable.
But she found her greatest success in slick, stylish sex comedies, beginning with "Pillow Talk." She and Hudson played two New Yorkers who shared a telephone party line. She followed with "The Thrill of It All," playing a housewife who gains fame as a TV pitchwoman to the chagrin of obstetrician husband James Garner.
The nation's theater owners voted her the top moneymaking star in 1960, 1962, 1963 and 1964.
Her first singing hit was the 1945 smash "Sentimental Journey," when she was barely in her 20s. Among the other songs she made famous were "Everybody Loves a Lover," ''Secret Love," and "It's Magic," a song from her first film, "Romance on the High Seas."
Critic Gary Giddins called her "the coolest and sexiest female singer of slow-ballads in movie history."
"Romance on the High Seas" had been designed for Judy Garland, then Betty Hutton. Both bowed out, and Day, recommended by songwriters Sammy Cahn and Jule Styne, won the role. Warner Bros. cashed in on its new star with a series of musicals, including "Calamity Jane," ''My Dream Is Yours," ''Tea for Two" and "Lullaby of Broadway." Her dramas included "Young Man with a Horn," with Kirk Douglas and Lauren Bacall, and "Storm Warning," with Ronald Reagan and Ginger Rogers.
Her last film was "With Six You Get Eggroll," a 1968 comedy about a widow and a widower who blend families.
"For those of us in my generation, Doris Day was synonymous with Hollywood icon," actor George Takei said on Twitter Monday.
In the 1960s, Day discovered that failed investments by her third husband, Martin Melcher, left her deeply in debt. She eventually won a multimillion-dollar judgment against their lawyer.
With movies trending for more explicit sex, she turned to television to recoup her finances. "The Doris Day Show" was a moderate success in its 1966-1973 run on CBS.
Day had married Melcher, who worked in her agent's office, in 1951. He became her manager, and her son took his name. In most of the films following "Pillow Talk," Melcher was listed as co-producer. Melcher died in 1969.
In her autobiography, Day recalled her son telling her the $20 million she had earned had vanished and she owed around $450,000, mostly for taxes. Terry Melcher, who died in 2004, became a songwriter and record producer, working with such stars as the Beach Boys. He was also famous for an aspiring musician he turned down, Charles Manson. When Manson and his followers embarked on their murderous rampage in 1969, they headed for a house once owned by Melcher, and instead came upon actress Sharon Tate and some visitors, all of whom were killed.
Day married a fourth time at age 52, to businessman Barry Comden in 1976.
Her wholesome image was referenced in the song "I'm Sandra Dee" in the 1971 musical "Grease," which included the lyrics: "Watch it, hey, I'm Doris Day/ I was not brought up that way/ Won't come across/ Even Rock Hudson lost/ His heart to Doris Day."
"The great Doris Day left us and took a piece of the sun with her," actress Goldie Hawn tweeted Monday. "She brighten our lives and lived out her life with dignity. May she rest peacefully."
The late AP writer Bob Thomas in Los Angeles contributed to this report.